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      The
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A Public Voice on Biotechnology and Agriculture
 
 
Union of Concerned Scientists
Fall/Winter 1998

What's Coming to Market?
An update on commercialization of genetically engineered crops and microorganisms

The chart below lists genetically engineered organisms approved for commercial use in the United Staes as of December 1998.

Product Institution Altered Trait Purpose Sources of New Genes Agency Action1 Approved for Sale
/Name2
Canola
(Oilseed rape)
Monsanto/ Calgene Altered oil composition -- high lauric acid Expand use in soap & food products Calif. bay, turnip rape, bacteria, virus USDA/approved FDA/approved3 EPA/not req. 1995
Laurical
Canola Hoechst/ AgrEvo Resistance to herbicide glufosinate Control weeds Bacteria USDA/not req.4 FDA/approved3 EPA/not req.4 Yes
Liberty Link
Canola Monsanto Resistance to herbicide glyphosate Control weeds NA5 USDA/not req.4 FDA/approved3 EPA/not req.4 Yes
Roundup Ready
Canola Hoechst/ AgrEvo/ Plant Genetic Systems Male sterility/ fertility restorer Facilitate breeding NA5 USDA/not req.4 FDA/approved3 EPA/not req.4 Yes
Unknown
Chicory, red hearted (Radicchio) Bejo Zaden Male sterility/ resistance to herbicide glufosinate Facilitate breeding bacteria USDA/approved
FDA/approved
EPA/not req.
Yes
Seed Link
Corn Monsanto Resistance to corn borer
(Bt toxin)
Control insect pests Bacteria USDA/approved FDA/approved3 EPA/approved Yes
YieldGard
Corn Hoechst/
AgrEvo/
Plant Genetic Systems
Resistance to corn borer (Bt toxin) Control insect pests Bacteria USDA/approved FDA/approved3 EPA/approved6 1998
Unknown
Corn (field & pop) Novartis Resistance to corn borer
(Bt toxin)
Control insect pests Corn, bacteria, virus USDA/approved FDA/approved3 EPA/approved 1995 (field)
1998 (pop)
KnockOut
Corn Mycogen Resistance to corn borer
(Bt toxin)
Control insect pests Corn, bacteria, virus USDA/approved FDA/approved3 EPA/approved 1995
NatureGuard
Corn (field & sweet) Novartis/
Northrup King
Resistance to corn borer
(Bt toxin)
Control insect pests Bacteria USDA/approved FDA/approved3 EPA/approved 1996 (field)
1998 (sweet)
Bt11
Corn Monsanto/DeKalb Resistance to corn borer
(Bt toxin)
Control insect pests Bacteria USDA/approved FDA/approved3 EPA/approved Yes
Bt-Xtra
Corn Monsanto Resistance to herbicide glyphosate & to corn borer (Bt toxin) Control weeds & insect pests Bacteria USDA/approved FDA/approved
EPA/approved
Yes
Unknown
Corn Monsanto/ DeKalb Resistance to herbicide glufosinate Control weeds Bacteria, virus USDA/approved FDA/approved3 EPA/approved6 Yes
Unknown
Corn Hoechst/
AgrEvo
Resistance to herbicide glufosinate Control weeds Bacteria, virus USDA/approved FDA/approved3 EPA/approved6 Yes
Liberty Link
Corn Hoechst/
AgrEvo/
Plant Genetic Systems
Male sterility/
resistance to herbicide glufosinate
Facilitate plant breeding/
control weeds
Bacteria, virus USDA/approved FDA/approved3 EPA/approved6 1995
Seed Link
Cotton Monsanto/
Calgene/
Rhone Poulenc
Resistance to herbicide bromoxynil Control weeds Bacteria, virus USDA/approved FDA/approved3 EPA/approved6 1995
BXN Cotton
Cotton DuPont Resistance to herbicide sulfonylurea Control weeds Tobacco, bacteria USDA/approved FDA/approved3 EPA/approved6 Yes
Unknown
Cotton Monsanto Resistance to bollworm & budworm
(Bt toxin)
Control insect pests Bacteria USDA/approved FDA/approved3 EPA/approved 1995
Bollgard
Cotton Monsanto Resistance to herbicide glyphosate Control weeds Arabidopsis, bacteria, virus USDA/approved FDA/approved3 EPA/approved6 1996
Roundup Ready
Cotton Monsanto/ Calgene/ Rhone Poulenc Resistance to herbicide bromoxynil & bollworms & budworms
(Bt toxin)
Control weeds & insect pests Bacteria, virus USDA/approved FDA/approved3
EPA/approved
1998
Unknown
Papaya Univ. Hawaii/
Cornell Univ.
Resistance to papaya ringspot virus Control virus disease Bacteria, virus USDA/approved FDA/approved3
EPA/approved7
1997
Sunup Rainbow
Potato Monsanto Resistance to Colorado potato beetle
(Bt toxin)
Control insect pests Bacteria USDA/approved FDA/approved3 EPA/approved 1995
New Leaf
Potato Monsanto Resistance to potato beetle (Bt toxin) and potato virus Y Control insect pests and virus disease Bacteria, virus USDA/approved FDA/approved3 EPA/approved 1998
New Leaf Plus
Soybean Monsanto Resistance to herbicide glyphosate Control weeds Petunia, soybean, bacteria, virus USDA/approved FDA/approved3 EPA/approved6 1995
Roundup Ready
Soybean DuPont Altered oil composition -- high oleic acid Increase stability, reduce polyunsat. fatty acids Soybean, bacteria, virus USDA/approved FDA/approved3 EPA/not req. 1997
Unknown
Soybean Hoechst/
AgrEvo
Resistance to herbicide glufosinate Control weeds Bacteria USDA/approved FDA/approved3 EPA/approved6 1998
Unknown
Squash Seminis Vegetable Seeds/ Asgrow Resistance to watermelon mosaic 2 & zucchini yellow mosaic viruses Control two virus diseases Viruses USDA/approved FDA/approved3 EPA/approved7 1995
Freedom II
Squash Seminis Vegetable Seeds Resistance to cucumber mosaic, watermelon mosaic 2, & zucchini yellow mosaic viruses Control three virus diseases Bacteria, viruses USDA/approved FDA/approved3 EPA/approved7 1997
Unknown
Tomato (cherry) Agritope Altered ripening Enhance fresh market value Bacteria USDA/approved FDA/approved3 EPA/not req. 1996
Unknown
Tomato Monsanto/ Calgene Delayed ripening Enhance fresh market value Tomato, bacteria, virus USDA/approved FDA/approved3 EPA/not req. 1994
Flavr Savr
Tomato DNA Plant Technology Delayed ripening Enhance fresh market value Tomato, bacteria, virus USDA/approved FDA/approved3 EPA/not req. 1995
Endless Summer
Tomato Monsanto Delayed ripening Enhance fresh market value Bacteria USDA/approved FDA/approved3 EPA/not req. 1995
Unknown
Tomato Zeneca/
PetoSeed
Thicker skin, altered pectin Enhance processing value Tomato, bacteria, virus USDA/approved FDA/approved3 EPA/not req. 1995
Unknown
Bacillus thuringiensis Ecogen Toxicity to Colorado potato beetle and caterpillar insect pests (Bt toxin) Control insect pests Bacteria USDA/not req. FDA/not req. EPA/approved 1995
Raven
Bacillus thuringiensis Ecogen Toxicity to caterpillar insect pests (Bt toxin) Control insect pests Bacteria USDA/not req. FDA/not req. EPA/approved Yes
Lepinox
Bacillus thuringiensis Novartis Toxicity caterpillar insect pests (Bt toxin) Control insect pests Bacteria USDA/not req. FDA/not req. EPA/approved Yes
CoStar
Pseudomonas flourescens8 Mycogen Toxicity to caterpillar insect pests (Bt toxin) Control insect pests Bacteria USDA/not req. FDA/not req. EPA/approved Yes
M-Peril MVP
Pseudomonas flourescens8 Mycogen Toxicity to caterpillar insect pests (Bt toxin) Control insect pests Bacteria USDA/not req. FDA/not req. EPA/approved Yes
Mattch
Sinorhizobium meliloti Urbana Labs/Research Seeds Enhance nitrogen fixation Increase yield in alfalfa Bacteria USDA/not req. FDA/not req. EPA/approved 1997
PC-2
Vaccinia virus vaccine Rhone Merieux Immunity to rabies Control raccoon rabies epidemics Rabies virus USDA/approved FDA/not req. EPA/approved 1995
Raboral
Notes:
1Action may respond to either voluntary or required submissions from companies.
2Because of arrangements among some companies to market each other's crops, it is no longer possible to track all names of products. If we know the original name assigned to a production, we will list that name only. 3FDA approval means that FDA has completed consultations with a company and will allow the product to enter the market once regulatory requirements are met at other agencies. Except for the Calgene tomato approved in 1994, FDA consultations are abbreviated reviews of company safety assessments.
4Companies are importing canola seeds to crush and sell as oil and feed. Since the seeds are not being planted in the United States, approval was not necessary.
5Information not available.
6EPA "approval" means that EPA registers the herbicide to be used on the transgenic crop. The agency does not evaluate the risks of the transgenic crop itself.
7EPA "approval" means that EPA grants a tolerance for the viral gene and protein produced in the transgenic crop. The agency does not evaluate the risks of the transgenic crop itself.
8The organism is killed before it is applied in the environment.

Sources: Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety; U.S. Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service; Federal Register notices; communications with company representatives and staff of US Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, Environmental Protection Agency; W.D. Gelernter, "Transgenic Pest Control Products: Development and Commercialization Status," Transgenic Plants in Mesoamerican Agriculture, A.J. Hruska and M.L. Pavon, eds., pp. 39-47, Zamorano Academic Press, Tegucigalpa, Honduras, 1997.

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