Date: 18 May 2000 05:19:56 +0100
Andrew Clark, Thursday May 18, 2000, The Guardian
Britain's second largest drugs company, AstraZeneca, has suffered the embarrassment of a raid by inspectors from the competition services department of the European commission.
The commission confirmed yesterday that its officers had searched the group's head office in Mayfair and its research and development centre in Sodertlje, Sweden.
Inspectors arrived without warning in February, to seize documents detailing sales of Losec - the world's best selling prescription drug, which is used to treat stomach ulcers. In a statement last night, the commission said it was investigating whether AstraZeneca had violated anti-monopolies laws, focusing in particular on a provision in a European treaty which bans "abuses of dominant positions".
The news sent shockwaves through the industry - AstraZeneca's shares slumped 174p to £27.
If it finds AstraZeneca guilty of an infringement, the commission could theoretically fine the group up to 10% of its turnover - which would be more than £1bn.
However, the commission has never come close to this limit - the biggest fine it has imposed was a A102m penalty levied against Volkswagen, the German car maker.
AstraZeneca issued a defiant response yesterday, saying it was "confident that any allegations or complaint are not well founded and will be held to be unsubstantiated".
The group said the investigation was the result of a complaint by a company which was trying to "jump the gun" by trying to launch a generic version of Losec before the drug's patent had expired.
Reports last night suggested that the complaint could have been made by Ratiopharm, a German firm known to be involved in a dispute with AstraZeneca.
The details of the alleged infringement concern an extension granted to Astra's patent over Losec, under the terms of an EU regulation in 1992.
This ruling benefited all products introduced after January, 1988. However, there is disagreement over exactly when Astra launched Losec - the Luxembourg in November, 1987.
One analyst said that the real worry for AstraZeneca was that if it was found guilty in the investigation, the life of its patents over Losec could be shortened. At present, most of its European patents expire between 2002 and 2004. The drug generates nearly a third of the company's revenue.
The analyst said: "This again highlights the exposure of the company to one product. The issue here is whether they managed to get extensions to Losec patents on the basis of invalid documents."
Another analyst, Michael King of SG Securities, said: "Obviously there is some issue or the commission would not be looking into it to the degree that it is. But it sounds like a question of interpretation, rather than of fraud."
The building raided in London is a modest-sized town house, which contains the office of the group's chief executive Tom McKillop and other directors. The building has been the target of environmental protesters in the past - a group dressed as genetically modified tomatoes gained entry last year and locked themselves in.
AstraZeneca insists that it has a successor drug, Nexium, to fill the gap left by Losec. However, some commentators say Nexium will be little better than generic versions of Losec.
Date: 18 May 2000 09:45:11 +0100
From: "j.e. cummins" firstname.lastname@example.org
PROF. Joe Cummins, 18 May 2000, e-mail: email@example.com
Marcus Williamson (May 18) wrote about the importation of GM free canola seed into Europe from Canada that had been spiked with traces of GM seed.
Canadian government has been very unctuous over this matter and tried to blame GM free seed producers according to radio and television reports in Canada. I have been dealing with Canadian government bureaucrats over GM crops for over a decade. The government bureaucrats are fanatic true believers over GM crops and they receive $millions from multinational chemical companies to promote GM ( the program is called cooperative research). In many public debates and confrontations the bureaucrats and company spokespeople make it clear that they regard the public to be their property (like hogs) who should be slopped with whatever can be palmed off on them.
I have little doubt that the government bureaucrats conspired to ship GM contaminated seeds, believing that fellow true believers in European bureaucracy would cooperate and spread the propaganda that GM contamination is minor (if not beneficial). In a few years of such accidents they could announce that Europe is fully contaminated with GM crops and can no longer reject their advances. They plan to spread GM crops by a a thousand cuts. If Europe is serious about labeling and restricting GM crops they must avoid Canada or go directly to the Prime Minister of Canada and insist that the Canadian bureaucracy be sidestepped and replaced with truly independent authorities .
The GM crop contamination also questions the Canadian chairmanship of the Codex Alimentarius Commission study group on labeling GM crops. The group seems mired in bureaucracy that reflects the chairs devious dithering. The chair should be shifted to a truly independent national delegation.
Date: 18 May 2000 11:51:04 +0100
Subject: Re: B-GE:GM crop by a thousand cuts
I believe that this has been 'engineered', as a means of breaking what biotech sees as 'deadlock'. Now we can't claim to have virgin soil for this situation, and the biotech industry can say that "there have been commercial 'scale' releases all over Europe and nothing has happened, why can't we just continue?
Sometimes it only takes an inch and the line is crossed. Sometimes there is no going back once that line is crossed. These people will do anything to get this into the world's food, wiping out, remember, the 'authenticity of organic foods to boot.
Date: 18 May 2000 18:05:47 +0100
From: "j.e. cummins" firstname.lastname@example.org
Prof. Joe Cummins, 18 May 2000, e-mail: email@example.com
The April issue of Genetic Engineering News includes the article Strides in Xenotransplantation deals with advances in genetic modification (humanization) of pigs and advances in the ability to transplant pig organs to humans in a sustainable way. Page one of the magazine includes a picture of five piglets humanized and cloned at the Roslin Institute in Scotland. The picture is charming and stimulated the whimsical comments below, I will write a separate letter on the technical and safety aspects of xenotransplantation
A picture on the front page of the April 2000 issue of Genetic Engineering News shows the five piglets humanized and cloned at the Roslin Institute . They are believed to be hereditary fellows in the Royal Society of Britain. The piglets are shown in a field of daffodils , delicately sniffing the perfume of the flowers. Presumably they were given a flower break from their work mastering the computer with tiny cloven hooves. They are well along on their magnum opus To Serve Man a cookbook.
Date: 19 May 2000 10:40:01 +0100
From: wytze firstname.lastname@example.org
Mail-out 76 (April, May 2000)
The EPO granted patent No 0669977 on May 3rd to Novartis. The patent covers human and animal organs, genetically engineered for the prupose of organ-transplantation. It was Greenpeace campaigner Christoph Then who covered up this patent.
Novartis scientists had genetically modified cells from the walls of bloodvessels (endothelian cells). These cells have a different cell-surface; they also produce a new substance called I kappa B. The goal is that the genetically altered cells should not be attacked by the immune system of foreign bodies. Novartis plans to use the cells for (xeno-)transplantation. Novartis got the patent not only for the cells, but also for organs:
Claim 3: "Tissue or donor organ comprising (these) cells (...)" (= transgenic human organs).
Claim 4: "Tissue or a donor organ (...) which is xenogenetic to the recipient." (= transgenic animal organs).
Konrad Becker, head of the patent-division from Novartis, said to the Swiss TV:"We want to avoid that third parties take over our idea." And Felix Addor, head of the Swiss patent-office, explained on Swiss TV that this patent is clearly in accordance with the new rules of the Euorpean Patent Convention (=European patent-law), decided upon last summer. It allows patents not only on human genes and cells, but also on "human parts": That is, on genetically manipulated human hearts, livers, kidneys...
Human hearts and livers being patented like vacuum-cleaners or chemicals, reduced to the low level of a commodity? Human hearts as "intellectual property" of the lifescience-giant Novartis? I did not believe this story when I first heard of it - this cannot be true. A most shocking braking down of a new tabu-barrier (and what with the constitutional right on human dignity?). Christoph Rehmann-Suter, teaching bio-ethics at the University of Basel, remarked:" It puts into question the legitimacy of the whole patent-system."
(More information: email@example.com )
The EPO's policy created many negative headlines lately: There is the redefinition of the European Patent Convention last summer, allowing patents on all living beings (exept whole human beings, see mail-outs 69 and 73, also on www.blauen-institut.ch ). Then the EPO-patent on human baby-blood cells (from navelcords). Among others, the scientists coalition EUROCORD filed opposition to this patent in 1997. In a first trial EPO had to revoke the patent, but the decision was opposed and will come up again.
Then the EPO-patent on human embryos which EPO had to admit was a mistake (mail-out 75), and now the patent on human organs. Meanwhile the oncomouse-patent-case still is open. The trial was in 1997, and ended with an eclat (no decision was taken); and we're still waiting. In November 2000 there will be a diplomatic conference of the EPO, with all contract-countries - this could be an occasion to put into question the legitimacy of EPO's new policy of complete surrender to industry interests.
Werkgroep Xenotransplantatie Vraagstukken
t: 0317 45 00 31 f: 0317 450 144 e: firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.stelling.nl/xeno
Secretariaat WXV, Burgtstraat 3, 6701 DA Wageningen
Giro 8367175 ten name van:
Werkgroep Xenotransplantatie Vraagstukken, te Wageningen
| reply to
GEN-TECH@nic.surfnet.nl to reach every-one
| contact GEN-TECH-REQUEST@nic.surfnet.nl for problems
Date: 19 May 2000 10:50:44 +0100
From: wytze email@example.com
By Biotech Activists firstname.lastname@example.org
From: "dan.mcguire" email@example.com
From: Richard Ellinghuysen REllinghuysen@nfo.org
University of Nebraska research study shows that Monsanto's Roundup Ready biotech soybeans yield 6-11% less than conventional, traditional varieties...
----- Original Message -----
From: Richard Ellinghuysen REllinghuysen@nfo.org
Sent: Thursday, May 18, 2000 8:29 AM
Subject: Roundup Ready soybeans yield 6 percent less
Biotech Activists firstname.lastname@example.org Posted: 05/18/2000
CLAY CENTER, Neb. (AP) A two-year study by University of Nebraska researchers showed that soybeans genetically altered to resist a popular herbicide produced lower yields than conventional soybeans.
The NU Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources study showed Roundup Ready soybeans yield 6 percent less than their closest relatives and 11 percent less than high-yielding soybean varieties. That averaged to three fewer bushels per acre or 480 fewer bushels on a 160-acre field. Roundup Ready soybean seed, produced by St. Louis, Mo.-based Monsanto Co., contains a gene that allows it to resist the popular Roundup herbicide. This is completely contrary to the body of research done by Monsanto and said Scarlett Foster, director of public affairs for Monsanto. The University of Nebraska study was a two-year project, she said, but farmers have been using Roundup Ready beans for five years. Foster said. The institute undertook the study paid for by the Nebraska Soybean Board when producers began asking yield-related questions about the genetically altered soybeans in 1997, NU agronomist and study director Roger Elmore said. Around the same time, he said, early test results from Nebraska and other universities were released, hinting at a lesser yield capacity for Roundup Ready beans.
Mark Ritchie, President
Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy
2105 First Ave. South, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55404 USA
612-870-3400 (phone) 612-870-4846 (fax) cell phone 612-385-7921
Date: 19 May 2000 13:06:17 +0100
GM food: special report, Friday May 19, 2000
The government's carefully constructed policy on the growing of genetically modified crops lies today in ruins. With the discovery that around 13,500 acres have been planted with rape seed contaminated by GM, the worst fears of environmentalist campaigners and the worst suspicions of the public have proved to be justified: all the national and international regulations on GM are not worth the paper they are printed on.
The seed company, Advanta, is "gobsmacked" by the discovery that its rape seed grown on the Canadian prairies was contaminated by GM crops 800 metres away. Yet scientists warned of just this possibility, and the politicians refused to listen and promised us that a mere 200 metres offered a cordon sanitaire in UK test sites. Now this has been proved wrong, the government has made matters much worse by sitting on the information for a month and then slipping it out surreptitiously in a written parliamentary answer. Why should we now believe Nick Brown on anything he says on GM? Ministers' credibility on this subject is irrevocably damaged and they largely have themselves to blame.
This sorry tale raises serious questions about whether the GM genie is now out of the bottle, beyond the control of any national government - the Advanta seed has been planted in Germany, France and Sweden.
It shows how impossible it has become to produce GM-free seeds; Advanta has moved its seed production out of Alberta to eastern Ontario, New Zealand and Montana in a bid to keep its seeds GM-free. But such is the dramatic advance of GM in major agricultural countries like the US, Brazil, China and India that keeping any part of the globe GM-free is now close to an impossible dream. This is an abysmal failure of international action.
But it is not yet time to throw up our hands in despair. At the very least the government has a responsibility to give us accurate information in this brave new GM world. It has belatedly announced that it will follow the lead of the German state of Baden-Württemberg, which discovered the Advanta rogue seeds, and institute spot checks on conventional seeds. Now to shore up its credibility, the government should vigorously defend the policy commitments it has made to have no commercial GM crops until 2003. And that means digging up and destroying these GM contaminated crops as soon as possible.
Date: 19 May 2000 15:44:22 +0100
From: Paul & Katrin Davis email@example.com
From The Ottawa Citizen,
By Lois Rogers, The Sunday Times
Cloned mice are mysteriously developing tumours and obesity in an unexpected setback to the development of the new technology.
The observation has provided fresh evidence that "reprogramming" cells to grow into perfect replica individuals can produce unforeseen consequences.
Other cloned animals have shown excessive growth patterns in the womb, meaning they are too big to be born, or have died soon after birth.
There have also been reports of heart disease and abnormal liver and lung development in cloned animals worldwide.
Data from the University of Hawaii, where the first mouse was cloned more than two years ago, indicate that the onset of obesity in adulthood is linked to events in the earliest moments of embryonic life.
More than 200 cloned mice have now been created.
In some strains all the identical mice have become large, while in others some have developed obesity while their cloned siblings have remained a normal size.
"All we know is that the process of cloning produces an animal that grows normally, but becomes a lot larger," said Randall Sakai, a geneticist from the University of Cincinnati drafted to help solve the puzzle. "We are trying to find out if any of the brain neuro-chemicals have been modified in the cloning process."
Details will be published shortly. Tony Perry, a scientist at Rockefeller University in New York who works with Teruhiko Wakayama, the mouse-cloning pioneer, said: "We are still working out whether clones are normal or, if abnormal, in what way."
Dr. Perry said the growing evidence of problems in clones was a warning of the risks of using them as potential donors for organs such as hearts, livers and kidneys for human transplant, or as a source of brain cells to transplant into human sufferers of degenerative conditions such as Parkinson's disease.
Last week Cumulina, the first mouse to be produced from an adult cell, died of old age. However, it was revealed that she had earlier undergone surgery to remove skin tumours. A number of other clones are believed to be similarly affected.
Other work by French researchers last year produced evidence that a cow cloned from ear cells had lethal blood and heart defects. The right chamber of one clone's heart was abnormal, and red and white blood cell numbers inexplicably plummeted after birth. The clone died from severe anemia after 51 days.
Scientists at Kinki University in Japan cloned eight cows two years ago. Four died soon after birth from infections, but all had appeared normal.
Harry Griffin, assistant director of the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh which produced Dolly the cloned sheep, said cloning from adult cells may transfer mutations the genetic defects which occur with age from one generation to the next.
"All the research groups that cloned animals in the first wave have gone out of their way to emphasize that this technology is new and unsafe," he said.
Date: 19 May 2000 22:55:42 +0100
From: "j.e. cummins" firstname.lastname@example.org
Following revelations that GM 'free" seeds from Canada contained GM seeds the Minister of Agriculture answered questions in the house. He was aggressive about the safety and benefit of GM crops. He claimed that Canada had sent seeds that fit the regulations of the United Nations (codex alementarius) and WTO. He strongly criticized Europe for refusing such beneficial seed.
You must realize that the politicians and bureaucracy are essentially acknowledging a direct action in sending GM seeds undercover. It is a clear that some European bureaucrats and politicians may must approve the sorry exercise in winking and nudging.
Interestingly, Agriculture Canada has recently been secretive and evasive about releasing the codes for GM canola (even though the codes were earlier published and such codes are published during approval elsewhere). The unnecessary secrecy has made it difficult for independent laboratories to develop fingerprint tests used to identify GM crops.
The Canadian Minister of Agriculture indicated he took no responsibility for the GM spiked seed shipments , but essentially indicated that he was delighted that they had happened.
Date: 20 May 2000 09:10:40 +0100
From: "j.e. cummins" email@example.com
Plant cancers from insects:
Published online before print May 16, 2000 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 10.1073/pnas.110054697
Robert P. Doss*,,, James E. Oliver+, William M. Proebsting, Sandra W. Potter**, SreyReath Kuy*, Stephen L. Clement, R. Thomas Williamson**, John R. Carney, and E. David DeVilbiss***
* Horticultural Crops Research Unit, United States Department of
Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Corvallis, OR 97330; Departments
of Horticulture and
+ Zoology, and
** College of Pharmacy, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331
*** Insect Chemical Ecology Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD 20705; Regional Plant Introduction Station, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Pullman, WA 99164; and KOSAN Biosciences, Hayward, CA 94545
Edited by Clarence A. Ryan, Jr., Washington State University, Pullman, WA,
and approved March 29, 2000 (received for review February 8, 2000)
To whom reprint requests should be addressed. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.) oviposition on pods of specific genetic lines of pea (Pisum sativum L.) stimulates cell division at the sites of egg attachment. As a result, tumor-like growths of undifferentiated cells (neoplasms) develop beneath the egg. These neoplasms impede larval entry into the pod. This unique form of induced resistance is conditioned by the Np allele and mediated by a recently discovered class of natural products that we have identified from both cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F.) and pea weevil.
These compounds, which we refer to as "bruchins," are long-chain ,-diols, esterified at one or both oxygens with 3-hydroxypropanoic acid. Bruchins are potent plant regulators, with application of as little as 1 fmol (0.5 pg) causing neoplastic growth on pods of all of the pea lines tested. The bruchins are, to our knowledge, the first natural products discovered with the ability to induce neoplasm formation when applied to intact plants.
Date: 20 May 2000 10:29:48 +0100
By James Meikle Saturday May 20, 2000, GM food: special report, The Guardian
No goverment officials have yet been to Canada to investigate the contamination of British crops by genetically modified material, more than a month after they were alerted to the mistake.
Contamination of conventional plant seed with rogue GM pollen from plants grown at least half a mile away on the prairies is being blamed by the international company Advanta as the probable cause of the mistake that has led to the planting of thousands of acres of tainted oil-seed rape in the last two springs.
The government believes neither the company nor hundreds of farmers have committed an offence because they did not know of the contamination although officials insist they are keeping the matter under review. The ministry of agriculture said no one had visited Advanta's Canadian arm in Winnipeg, Manitoba, or the site of the alleged cross-contamination in Alberta, although it was now considering sending an official.
"There were other more pressing requirements: finding out where we stood legally and whether there was any environmental or public health risk," a spokesman said.
The admission came as Advanta and its seed merchant distributors continued to seek the exact locations of farms that used the contaminated rape seed. Advanta UK said most were likely to be in the north of England and Scotland. "We still don't know the precise distribution of it. We wish we did."
Farmers who had bought the seed were still reluctant to identify themselves publicly last night for fear of damaging their own businesses. Many want the government to announce compensation package - an option so far ruled out by ministers.
Advanta in Britain was unable to say whether the seeds were contimated by other companies' products or its own. The technology for the genetic material found in the seed was developed by Monsanto, which licenses many seed companies.
The government still holds that its initial advice was that no offence had been committed but "we are continuing to examine the facts and will take action as appropriate".
Two advisory committees and the food standards agency also said there was no threat to the environment or health. Ministers were awaiting the response of the advisory committee on animal feed.
The health and safety executive had not been consulted because it was "not considered a body to take a lead on any issues involved", nor had the crown prosecution service been consulted, despite the fact that breaking environmental protection law is a criminal offence.
Advanta in Canada last night insisted it had internal evidence that pointed "very strongly" towards cross pollination rather than errors in any other part of the process including shipping, as suggested by Canadain minsiter Lyle Vanclief yesterday. But identifying the source would require very expensive tests.
Howard Morris, its general manager, said no official from Britain or other countries affected - Sweden, France and Germany - had visited. "I don't think that is unusual. In a situation like this, it is government to government and we have had discussions with Canadian government officials."
Date: 21 May 2000 08:18:50 +0100
From: "j.e. cummins" email@example.com
Prof. Joe Cummins, 18 May 2000, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Last March 9 I wrote Virus Problems From Pig to Human Transplants about the efforts to humanize pigs by genetic modification (GM) so that the the GM pigs can provide replacement parts for humans. The endogenous viruses of pigs (PERVs) pose a problem because they are released when pig cells contact human cells. Recent studies show that PERVs not only infect human cells but produce products of the infection inhibit human immune cell functions.
This indicates that PERV infection in transplant recipients would lead to an immunodeficiency disease (Tacke et al 2000). Interestingly, the advocates and developers of humanized pigs recognizing that the pigs should be a real gold mine now employ pig to baboon transplants as models for human transplantation. Baboons are seen to be desirable models for human transplantation because pig cells do not release PERVs when they contact baboon cells or following pig to baboon cell transplants(Martin et al 1999). Thus safety studies using baboons as models will produce results pleasing the developers of humanized pigs.
PERVs were not found in humans transplanted with pig spleen or pancreas cells nor in primates transplanted with pig hear or kidney (Genetic Engineering News 2000).In both cases pig cells persisted in organs and tissues of the graft recipient (microchimerism) for up to eight years after xenotransplantation. In other words the pig cells spread among the tissues of the graft recipient and persisted.
PERVs are a part of the genome of the pig. The virus is activated to reproduce and infect when pig cells contact human cells. Other infecting virus found in pigs promoted for transplantation include parvovirus, circovirus and a newly discovered hepatitis virus that causes wasting and nerve damage (Genetic Engineering News 2000). Unlike the PERVs the infecting viruses can be minimized by maintaining the transplant pigs in a germ free environment.
It is imperative that the threat of viruses to transplant recipients and to the general public should be resolved before human transplantation is begun on a large scale. The developers of humanized pigs and their advocates seem be most content that the public should not be informed nor participate in the safety evaluation of xenotransplantation.
Date: 21 May 2000 08:28:22 +0100
From: MichaelP email@example.com
This is the BBC's transcript of a 25 minute lecture, plus Questions and
Answers, plus selected e-mail comments.
BBC Reith Lecture
Questions From The Floor
Read it carefully !!
"The globalisation of non-sustainable industrial agriculture is literally evaporating the incomes of Third World farmers through a combination of devaluation of currencies, increase in costs of production and a collapse in commodity prices."
"The globalisation of the food system is destroying the diversity of local food cultures and local food economies. A global monoculture is being forced on people by defining everything that is fresh, local and handmade as a health hazard. Human hands are being defined as the worst contaminants, and work for human hands is being outlawed, to be replaced by machines and chemicals bought from global corporations."
"Instead of recognising that commercial interests build on nature and on the contribution of other cultures, global law has enshrined the patriarchal myth of creation to create new property rights to life forms just as colonialism used the myth of discovery as the basis of the take over of the land of others as colonies."
"Who feeds the world? My answer is very different to that given by most people. It is women and small farmers working with biodiversity who are the primary food providers in the Third World, and contrary to the dominant assumption, their biodiversity based small farms are more productive than industrial monocultures."
By Vandana Shiva
Recently, I was visiting Bhatinda in Punjab because of an epidemic of farmer suicides. Punjab used to be the most prosperous agricultural region in India. Today every farmer is in debt and despair. Vast stretches of land have become water-logged desert. And as an old farmer pointed out, even the trees have stopped bearing fruit because heavy use of pesticides have killed the pollinators the bees and butterflies.
And Punjab is not alone in experiencing this ecological and social disaster. Last year I was in Warangal, Andhra Pradesh where farmers have also been committing suicide. Farmers who traditionally grew pulses and millets and paddy have been lured by seed companies to buy hybrid cotton seeds referred to by the seed merchants as "white gold", which were supposed to make them millionaires. Instead they became paupers.
Their native seeds have been displaced with new hybrids which cannot be saved and need to be purchased every year at high cost. Hybrids are also very vulnerable to pest attacks. Spending on pesticides in Warangal has shot up 2000 per cent from $2.5 million in the 1980s to $50 million in 1997. Now farmers are consuming the same pesticides as a way of killing themselves so that they can escape permanently from unpayable debt.
The corporations are now trying to introduce genetically engineered seed which will further increase costs and ecological risks. That is why farmers like Malla Reddy of the Andhra Pradesh Farmers' Union had uprooted Monsanto's genetically engineered Bollgard cotton in Warangal.
On March 27th, 25 year old Betavati Ratan took his life because he could not pay pack debts for drilling a deep tube well on his two-acre farm. The wells are now dry, as are the wells in Gujarat and Rajasthan where more than 50 million people face a water famine.
The drought is not a "natural disaster". It is "man-made". It is the result of mining of scarce ground water in arid regions to grow thirsty cash crops for exports instead of water prudent food crops for local needs.
It is experiences such as these which tell me that we are so wrong to be smug about the new global economy. I will argue in this lecture that it is time to stop and think about the impact of globalisation on the lives of ordinary people. This is vital to achieve sustainability.
Seattle and the World Trade Organisation protests last year have forced everyone to think again. Throughout this lecture series people have referred to different aspects of sustainable development taking globalisation for granted. For me it is now time radically to re-evaluate what we are doing. For what we are doing in the name of globalisation to the poor is brutal and unforgivable. This is specially evident in India as we witness the unfolding disasters of globalisation, especially in food and agriculture.
Who feeds the world? My answer is very different to that given by most people.
It is women and small farmers working with biodiversity who are the primary food providers in the Third World, and contrary to the dominant assumption, their biodiversity based small farms are more productive than industrial monocultures.
The rich diversity and sustainable systems of food production are being destroyed in the name of increasing food production. However, with the destruction of diversity, rich sources of nutrition disappear. When measured in terms of nutrition per acre, and from the perspective biodiversity, the so called "high yields" of industrial agriculture or industrial fisheries do not imply more production of food and nutrition.
Yields usually refers to production per unit area of a single crop. Output refers to the total production of diverse crops and products. Planting only one crop in the entire field as a monoculture will of course increase its individual yield. Planting multiple crops in a mixture will have low yields of individual crops, but will have high total output of food. Yields have been defined in such a way as to make the food production on small farms by small farmers disappear.
This hides the production by millions of women farmers in the Third World farmers like those in my native Himalaya who fought against logging in the Chipko movement, who in their terraced fields even today grow Jhangora (barnyard millet), Marsha (Amaranth), Tur (Pigeon Pea), Urad (Black gram), Gahat (horse gram), Soya Bean (Glycine Max), Bhat (Glycine Soya) endless diversity in their fields. From the biodiversity perspective, biodiversity based productivity is higher than monoculture productivity. I call this blindness to the high productivity of diversity a "Monoculture of the Mind", which creates monocultures in our fields and in our world.
The Mayan peasants in the Chiapas are characterised as unproductive because they produce only 2 tons of corn per acre. However, the overall food output is 20 tons per acre when the diversity of their beans and squashes, their vegetables their fruit trees are taken into account.
In Java, small farmers cultivate 607 species in their home gardens. In sub-Saharan Africa, women cultivate 120 different plants. A single home garden in Thailand has 230 species, and African home gardens have more than 60 species of trees.
Rural families in the Congo eat leaves from more than 50 species of their farm trees.
A study in eastern Nigeria found that home gardens occupying only 2 per cent of a household's farmland accounted for half of the farm's total output. In Indonesia 20 per cent of household income and 40 per cent of domestic food supplies come from the home gardens managed by women.
Research done by FAO has shown that small biodiverse farms can produce thousands of times more food than large, industrial monocultures.
And diversity in addition to giving more food is the best strategy for preventing drought and desertification.
What the world needs to feed a growing population sustainably is biodiversity intensification, not the chemical intensification or the intensification of genetic engineering. While women and small peasants feed the world through biodiversity we are repeatedly told that without genetic engineering and globalisation of agriculture the world will starve. In spite of all empirical evidence showing that genetic engineering does not produce more food and in fact often leads to a yield decline, it is constantly promoted as the only alternative available for feeding the hungry.
That is why I ask, who feeds the world?
This deliberate blindness to diversity, the blindness to nature's production, production by women, production by Third World farmers allows destruction and appropriation to be projected as creation.
Take the case of the much flouted "golden rice" or genetically engineered Vitamin A rice as a cure for blindness. It is assumed that without genetic engineering we cannot remove Vitamin A deficiency. However, nature gives us abundant and diverse sources of vitamin A. If rice was not polished, rice itself would provide Vitamin A. If herbicides were not sprayed on our wheat fields, we would have bathua, amaranth, mustard leaves as delicious and nutritious greens that provide Vitamin A.
Women in Bengal use more than 150 plants as greens Hinche sak (Enhydra fluctuans), Palang sak (Spinacea oleracea), Tak palang (Rumex vesicarious), Lal Sak (Amaranthus gangeticus) to name but a few.
But the myth of creation presents biotechnologists as the creators of Vitamin A, negating nature's diverse gifts and women's knowledge of how to use this diversity to feed their children and families.
The most efficient means of rendering the destruction of nature, local economies and small autonomous producers is by rendering their production invisible.
Women who produce for their families and communities are treated as `non-productive' and `economically' inactive. The devaluation of women's work, and of work done in sustainable economies, is the natural outcome of a system constructed by capitalist patriarchy. This is how globalisation destroys local economies and destruction itself is counted as growth.
And women themselves are devalued. Because many women in the rural and indigenous communities work co-operatively with nature's processes, their work is often contradictory to the dominant market driven `development' and trade policies. And because work that satisfies needs and ensures sustenance is devalued in general, there is less nurturing of life and life support systems.
The devaluation and invisibility of sustainable, regenerative production is most glaring in the area of food. While patriarchal division of labour has assigned women the role of feeding their families and communities, patriarchal economics and patriarchal views of science and technology magically make women's work in providing food disappear. "Feeding the World" becomes disassociated from the women who actually do it and is projected as dependent on global agribusiness and biotechnology corporations.
However, industrialisation and genetic engineering of food and globalisation of trade in agriculture are recipes for creating hunger, not for feeding the poor.
Everywhere, food production is becoming a negative economy, with farmers spending more to buy costly inputs for industrial production than the price they receive for their produce. The consequence is rising debts and epidemics of suicides in both poor and rich countries.
Economic globalisation is leading to a concentration of the seed industry, increased use of pesticides, and, finally, increased debt. Capital-intensive, corporate controlled agriculture is being spread into regions where peasants are poor but, until now, have been self-sufficient in food. In the regions where industrial agriculture has been introduced through globalisation, higher costs are making it virtually impossible for small farmers to survive.
The globalisation of non-sustainable industrial agriculture is literally evaporating the incomes of Third World farmers through a combination of devaluation of currencies, increase in costs of production and a collapse in commodity prices.
Farmers everywhere are being paid a fraction of what they received for the same commodity a decade ago. The Canadian National Farmers Union put it like this in a report to the senate this year:
"While the farmers growing cereal grains wheat, oats, corn earn negative returns and are pushed close to bankruptcy, the companies that make breakfast cereals reap huge profits. In 1998, cereal companies Kellogg's, Quaker Oats, and General Mills enjoyed return on equity rates of 56%, 165% and 222% respectively. While a bushel of corn sold for less than $4, a bushel of corn flakes sold for $133 ... Maybe farmers are making too little because others are taking too much."
And a World Bank report has admitted that "behind the polarisation of domestic consumer prices and world prices is the presence of large trading companies in international commodity markets."
While farmers earn less, consumers pay more. In India, food prices have doubled between 1999 and 2000. The consumption of food grains in rural areas has dropped by 12%. Increased economic growth through global commerce is based on pseudo surpluses. More food is being traded while the poor are consuming less. When growth increases poverty, when real production becomes a negative economy, and speculators are defined as "wealth creators", something has gone wrong with the concepts and categories of wealth and wealth creation. Pushing the real production by nature and people into a negative economy implies that production of real goods and services is declining, creating deeper poverty for the millions who are not part of the dot.com route to instant wealth creation.
Women as I have said are the primary food producers and food processors in the world. However, their work in production and processing is now becoming invisible.
Recently, the McKinsey corporation said: "American food giants recognise that Indian agro-business has lots of room to grow, especially in food processing. India processes a minuscule 1 per cent of the food it grows compared with 70 per cent for the U.S...".
It is not that we Indians eat our food raw. Global consultants fail to see the 99 per cent food processing done by women at household level, or by the small cottage industry because it is not controlled by global agribusiness. 99% of India's agroprocessing has been intentionally kept at the small level. Now , under the pressure of globalisation, things are changing. Pseudo hygiene laws are being uses to shut down local economies and small scale processing.
In August 1998, small scale local processing of edible oil was banned in India through a "packaging order" which made sale of open oil illegal and required all oil to be packaged in plastic or aluminium. This shut down tiny "ghanis" or cold pressed mills. It destroyed the market for our diverse oilseeds mustard, linseed, sesame, groundnut, coconut.
And the take-over of the edible oil industry has affected 10 million livelihoods. The take over of flour or "atta" by packaged branded flour will cost 100 million livelihoods. And these millions are being pushed into new poverty.
The forced use of packaging will increase the environmental burden of millions of tonnes of waste.
The globalisation of the food system is destroying the diversity of local food cultures and local food economies. A global monoculture is being forced on people by defining everything that is fresh, local and handmade as a health hazard. Human hands are being defined as the worst contaminants, and work for human hands is being outlawed, to be replaced by machines and chemicals bought from global corporations. These are not recipes for feeding the world, but stealing livelihoods from the poor to create markets for the powerful.
People are being perceived as parasites, to be exterminated for the "health" of the global economy.
In the process new health and ecological hazards are being forced on Third World people through dumping of genetically engineered foods and other hazardous products.
Recently, because of a W.T.O. ruling, India has been forced to remove restrictions on all imports.
Among the unrestricted imports are carcasses and animal waste parts that create a threat to our culture and introduce public health hazards such as the Mad Cow Disease.
The US Centre for Disease Prevention in Atlanta has calculated that nearly 81 million cases of food borne illnesses occur in the US every year. Deaths from food poisoning have gone up more up more than four times due to deregulation. Most of these infections are caused by factory farmed meat. The US slaughters 93 million pigs, thirty seven million cattle, two million calves, six million horses, goats and sheep and eight billion chickens and turkeys each year.
Now the giant meat industry of US wants to dump contaminated meat produced through violent and cruel methods on Indian consumers.
The waste of the rich is being dumped on the poor. The wealth of the poor is being violently appropriated through new and clever means like patents on biodiversity and indigenous knowledge.
Patents and intellectual property rights are supposed to be granted for novel inventions. But patents are being claimed for rice varieties such as the basmati for which my Valley where I was born is famous, or pesticides derived from the Neem which our mothers and grandmothers have been using.
Rice Tec, a U.S. based company has been granted Patent no. 5,663,484 for basmati rice lines and grains.
Basmati, neem, pepper, bitter gourd, turmeric.......every aspect of the innovation embodied in our indigenous food and medicinal systems is now being pirated and patented. The knowledge of the poor is being converted into the property of global corporations, creating a situation where the poor will have to pay for the seeds and medicines they have evolved and have used to meet their own needs for nutrition and health care.
Such false claims to creation are now the global norm, with the Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights Agreement of World Trade Organisation forcing countries to introduce regimes that allow patenting of life forms and indigenous knowledge.
Instead of recognising that commercial interests build on nature and on the contribution of other cultures, global law has enshrined the patriarchal myth of creation to create new property rights to life forms just as colonialism used the myth of discovery as the basis of the take over of the land of others as colonies.
Humans do not create life when they manipulate it. Rice Tec's claim that it has made "an instant invention of a novel rice line", or Roslin Institute's claim that Ian Wilmut "created" Dolly denies the creativity of nature, the self-organisational capacity of life forms, and the prior innovations of Third World communities.
Patents and intellectual property rights are supposed to prevent piracy. Instead they are becoming the instruments of pirating the common traditional knowledge from the poor of the Third World and making it the exclusive "property" of western scientists and corporations.
When patents are granted for seeds and plants, as in the case of basmati, theft is defined as creation, and saving and sharing seed is defined as theft of intellectual property. Corporations which have broad patents on crops such as cotton, soya bean, mustard are suing farmers for seed saving and hiring detective agencies to find out if farmers have saved seed or shared it with neighbours.
The recent announcement that Monsanto is giving away the rice genome for free is misleading, because Monsanto has never made a commitment that it will never patent rice varieties or any other crop varieties.
Sharing and exchange, the basis of our humanity and of our ecological survival has been redefined as a crime. This makes us all poor.
Nature has given us abundance, women's indigenous knowledge of biodiversity, agriculture and nutrition has built on that abundance to create more from less, to create growth through sharing.
The poor are pushed into deeper poverty by making them pay for what was theirs. Even the rich are poorer because their profits are based on the theft and on the use of coercion and violence. This is not wealth creation but plunder.
Sustainability requires the protection of all species and all people and the recognition that diverse species and diverse people play an essential role in maintaining ecological processes. Pollinators are critical to fertilisation and generation of plants. Biodiversity in fields provides vegetables, fodder, medicine and protection to the soil from water and wind erosion.
As humans travel further down the road to non-sustainability, they become intolerant of other species and blind to their vital role in our survival.
In 1992, when Indian farmers destroyed Cargill's seed plant in Bellary, Karnataka, to protest against seed failure, the Cargill Chief Executive stated, "We bring Indian farmers smart technologies which prevent bees from usurping the pollen". When I was participating in the United Nations Biosafety Negotiations, Monsanto circulated literature to defend its herbicide resistant Roundup ready crops on grounds that they prevent "weeds from stealing the sunshine". But what Monsanto calls weeds are the green fields that provide Vitamin A rice and prevent blindness in children and anaemia in women.
A worldview that defines pollination as "theft by bees" and claims biodiversity "steals" sunshine is a worldview which itself aims at stealing nature's harvest by replacing open, pollinated varieties with hybrids and sterile seeds, and destroying biodiverse flora with herbicides such as Roundup. The threat posed to the Monarch butterfly by genetically engineered bt crops is just one example of the ecological poverty created by the new biotechnologies. As butterflies and bees disappear, production is undermined. As biodiversity disappears, with it go sources of nutrition and food.
When giant corporations view small peasants and bees as thieves, and through trade rules and new technologies seek the right to exterminate them, humanity has reached a dangerous threshold. The imperative to stamp out the smallest insect, the smallest plant, the smallest peasant comes from a deep fear the fear of everything that is alive and free. And this deep insecurity and fear is unleashing the violence against all people and all species.
The global free trade economy has become a threat to sustainability and the very survival of the poor and other species is at stake not just as a side effect or as an exception but in a systemic way through a restructuring of our worldview at the most fundamental level. Sustainability, sharing and survival is being economically outlawed in the name of market competitiveness and market efficiency.
I want to argue here tonight that we need to urgently bring the planet and people back into the picture.
The world can be fed only by feeding all beings that make the world.
In giving food to other beings and species we maintain conditions for our own food security. In feeding earthworms we feed ourselves. In feeding cows, we feed the soil, and in providing food for the soil, we provide food for humans. This worldview of abundance is based on sharing and on a deep awareness of humans as members of the earth family. This awareness that in impoverishing other beings, we impoverish ourselves and in nourishing other beings, we nourish ourselves is the real basis of sustainability.
The sustainability challenge for the new millennium is whether global economic man can move out of the worldview based on fear and scarcity, monocultures and monopolies, appropriation and dispossession and shift to a view based on abundance and sharing, diversity and decentralisation, and respect and dignity for all beings.
Sustainability demands that we move out of the economic trap that is leaving no space for other species and other people. Economic Globalisation has become a war against nature and the poor. But the rules of globalisation are not god given. They can be changed. They must be changed. We must bring this war to an end.
Since Seattle, a frequently used phrase has been the need for a rule based system. Globalisation is the rule of commerce and it has elevated Wall Street to be the only source of value. As a result things that should have high worth nature, culture, the future are being devalued and destroyed. The rules of globalisation are undermining the rules of justice and sustainability, of compassion and sharing. We have to move from market totalitarianism to an earth democracy.
We can survive as a species only if we live by the rules of the biosphere. The biosphere has enough for everyone's needs if the global economy respects the limits set by sustainability and justice.
As Gandhi had reminded us: "The earth has enough for everyone's needs, but not for some people's greed".
It turns out we have a very unlevel playing field the northern countries or OECD countries are giving 343 billion dollars of subsidies and these subsidies have actually doubled since the completion of the Uruguay round meantime India's giving a negative subsidy of 25 billion. Now one could keep arguing about how the north is giving very high subsidies I think the argument needs to shift to how can we ensure that small farmers in every country and the soil and water and biodiversity in every country be protected and how can we ensure that trade rules as they are written by totally fallible trade ministers and trade secretaries should be rewritten to ensure that this unequal playing field does not destroy the Earth and her producers.
I do not see growers as isolated individuals because the consequences of their action are felt by their neighbours. If I am growing b.t. corn on my field I kill the monarch butterfly of my neighbour's field. Communities, collectives are cohesiveness of societies are important to talk about not individual growers, and that is the bottom rung of decision making to which both which corporations as well as governments need to be accountable that is the experiment that started after Seattle and that experiment in accountable localisation to ensure that decisions are made at appropriate place and production is carried out at the appropriate level is really the new enterprise of democracy that societies are involved in around the world, even while globalisation threatens our lives.
Everything's wrong with it. Now surely life cannot be like that Vandanaji may I plead with you to please consider third paradigm, where we take bits and pieces from here and there and get an eclectic, practical approach, and I support Boopinder Singh Hooda the President of the Haryama Congress who asked you and you didn't answer that what is the alternative at a time when no country can opt out of the WTO it's not a piece of paper madam it is a commitment that countries have to make or they will be paraiah countries and we cannot afford to be a paraiah country please react?
Those rules are being reviewed. What we have called for in Seattle is a more democratic input in what sustainable and just rules would look like for agriculture on intellectual property rights, in the area of services, in the area of investments, the four new areas which were brought in. Before that no-one had problems with the GATT. The old GATT was about real trade in real products beyond national boundaries. The new GATT with the Uruguay round is about invading in every space of our everyday lives ... and if you are a woman you do have a somewhat different point of view. That's why we talk of gender. If you are poor, you will have a different point of view from the rich. To have different points of view because of differences in location in society is not a problem.
It is opportunistic though to take a little element of the perspective of the rich , a little element of the perspective of the poor and put it into a little jigsaw of opportunistic statements. Societies live by coherent principles, organisational systems, values and world views. And what we are calling for is to balance out that one sided idea that we live by commerce alone.
It's assumed that everything, real growth, real prosperity is going to come out of cyber space, but as you can see, you can have the best of IT technologies floating above the carcasses of people dying in Rajisthan and Gujerat right now and it will not help them out. We have to pay attention to the ecological base of our survival and the needs of all. I personally am committed to feeling and believing that the smallest of species and the smallest of people have as much a right to live on this planet with dignity as the most powerful corporation and the most powerful individual.
We need people to make decisions on the basis of having the knowledge of what the technologies are, and having processes to actually participate. That's the basis of our plea in the supreme court on the Monsanto trials that we need more knowledge dissemination, more participation, more accountability. And finally, there are situations in which we will be ready with the production technology long before we are ready with the capacity to assess its impact. That is when we call for the precautionary principle. Know the risks before you deploy technology. The result we have a precautionary principle today is because we put out DDT gave it Nobel prizes, now we want to withdraw it. We put out fossil fuel now we're worried about climate change.
With GM crops you can't deploy them because there's no call back. In any case the climate change phenomena is becoming so life threatening that people are calling for the fact that you will never have the final ultimate deterministic linear prediction therefore on the basis of complex assessment, take care, take caution before you deploy technologies on a very large scale that could be absolutely devastating for the planet.
That was India before the race to "plastic" itself, globalise itself. Today what we need is a way to make a fit into those systems that we have evolved so sophisticatedly, recycling organic matter to ensure we get out of the chemical tread mill because chemicals do not get recycled. They just bio-accumulate.
You don't have to weed at the right time the few tiny weeds that might come up, spray the herbicide and that technology of carelessness eventually creates disenchanted people because they have no meaning, no role. In the areas where we work through our movement called "Navdanya", for conserving biodiveristy and we now have seed banks in seven states, eleven community seed banks have been started every region where after a while the farmers have replaced external inputs with internal inputs to produce food organically, where they have managed to get rid of their debts a threefold increase in incomes just by saving on expenditure they are excited, they're enthused, they are absolutely on the verge of a whole new determination and I invite some of you to come and visit those regions.
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Date: 21 May 2000 22:08:09 +0100
From: "Ericka " firstname.lastname@example.org
From: Ronnie Cummins email@example.com
From: Debbie Ortman firstname.lastname@example.org
By Dr. Charles Benbrook email@example.com
(by way of Debbie Ortman firstname.lastname@example.org) Subject: [grainrage] Monsanto's Big Lie Exposed: Roundup Ready Soybeans Use 2-5 Times More Herbicides Than Non-GE Varieties (please post)
Biotech Activists email@example.com Posted: 05/18/2000 By firstname.lastname@example.org
by Dr. Charles Benbrook, email@example.com
For those unfamiliar with the basics of soybean herbicides and the impacts of GMO/RR (Roundup Ready) soybeans on use rates, the simple facts are these.
In the early to mid-1980s, most soybean herbicides were applied in combinations, and at a combined rate between 0.75 to 1.5 pounds per acre. These are sometimes today called the "traditional" soybean herbicides or weed management systems (see below).
By the mid- to late 1980s and throughout the 1990s, the pesticide industry developed and marketed dozens of new, low-dose soybean herbicides in the imidazolinone and sulfonylurea classes. These products are applied typically in the 0.05 pounds active ingredient per acre to 0.2 pounds per acre range. Often, two active ingredients are required, resulting in total per acre application rates of 0.1 to 0.3 pounds per acre.
To this day, some acres are still treated with the old conventional herbicides applied at rates between 1.0 and 2.0 pounds per acre, again mostly in combinations. In recent years about 15% of acres are treated with trifluralin at about .9 pounds/acre and another 16% or so with pendimethalin at .97 pounds per acre. These products are typically supplemented with an application of another herbicide, and in some cases are used prior to planting RR beans.
Along comes RR beans in 1996. Adoption has increased to over 55% of acres, at an average rate of application of about .92 pounds of glyphosate per acre per season (average about 1.3 applications per acre; i.e. about one-third of growers use 2 applications). Roundup is typically used in combination with other products, bringing average total herbicide use per acre to about 1.5 pounds (see our forthcoming report for source of these data). Many farmers using RR beans are applying over 2 pounds per acre, a few apply less than 1 pound.
So, if you are a biotech proponent or Monsanto, you compare herbicide pounds applied at the low-end of the Roundup Ready treated acres distribution, i.e. at a rate of about 1 pound per year, to the small percent of acres treated just with the higher-dose, older products. Monsanto has prepared a document called "Chemical Reduction Benefits of Biotechnology Crops, Compiled November 30, 1999." This document is for the press, political leaders, and PR purposes and has been widely disseminated. On the Roundup herbicide use and GMO-soybean front, it states --
"In a Sparks Commodities, Inc. study conducted in 1996 and 1997, in-season herbicide use in Roundup Ready soybean fields was shown to be less than TRADITIONAL SOYBEAN FIELDS by an average of 26 percent and 22 percent respectively, over four regions of the United States."
This statement is probably true in a narrow sense but is also creatively misleading if not down-right dishonest. What the statement means is that there are soybean producers in each of four regions still using the older, higher-rate herbicides, and compared to their weed management systems, the "traditional soybean fields," herbicide use in RR bean fields is less.
What the Monsanto materials do not say is that if the comparison was instead to the average soybean field not planted to RR beans, or even worse, to farmers using "modern, low-dose herbicides," the results would be very different. In my review of the RR yield drag (accessible at http://www.biotech-info.net/RR_yield_drag_98.pdf), I stated that Roundup use is between 2 and 5 times greater measured on the basis of pounds
applied per acre, when the comparison is between the average field planted to RR beans and most other soybean acres not planted to GMO varieties. When compared to systems utilizing the really low-dose herbicides, the Roundup ready fields require more than 10 times the herbicide, but such a selective comparison would be analytically dishonest. But I guess it all depends on what you feel the rules are and whether everyone has to follow them.
Soon we will release a new report that very clearly shows that on the average RR soybean fields, substantially more herbicide is applied when measured on the basis of total pounds of active ingredient applied per acre compared to the average non-GMO soybean fields. When a truly fair comparison is made of average rates, the answer is clear.
There are many benefits to farmers of the RR soybean technology despite the yield drag (recently confirmed by researchers at Nebraska), greater reliance/use of herbicides, and the system's higher cost (compared to some alternatives). But reducing herbicide use is not one of them.
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