INDICATIONS     CONTRA-INDICATIONS     DOSAGE     SIDE-EFFECTS     PREGNANCY     OVERDOSE     IDENTIFICATION     PATIENT INFORMATION

Logo CLAMENTIN 375 (Tablets)

SCHEDULING STATUS:
S4

PROPRIETARY NAME
(and dosage form):

CLAMENTIN 375 (Tablets)

COMPOSITION:
CLAMENTIN 375
:
White/off-white round, film coated tablets containing
amoxycillin trihydrate equivalent to 250 mg amoxycillin and potassium clavulanate equivalent to 125 mg clavulanic acid.

PHARMACOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION:
A 20.1.2 Penicillins

PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTION:
(a)        Bacteriology:
  (i) Spectrum:
CLAMENTIN is the group name for formulations containing 2, 4 and 5 parts of a broad spectrum penicillin, amoxycillin and 1 part of potassium clavulanate. Potassium clavulanate has been shown in vitro to be an irreversible inhibitor of beta-lactamases produced by; Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Bacteroides fragilis. Potassium clavulanate does not inactivate the chromosomally mediated (Sykes Type 1 Cephalosporinase) beta-lactamases produced by Acinetobacter species, Citrobacter species, Enterobacter, Indole positive Proteus, Providencia species and Serratia marcescens. In vitro the formulation showed synergism against amoxycillin-resistant organisms, with no evidence of antagonism and the activity was not reduced in the presence of serum.
(In vitro activity does not necessarily imply in vivo efficacy).
  (ii) Bactericidal action:
The amoxycillin component of the formulations exert a bactericidal action against many strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. The clavulanic acid component has very little bactericidal action. It does however, by inactivation of susceptible beta-lactamases, protect amoxycillin from degradation by a large number of beta-lactamase enzymes produced by penicillin resistant strains of organisms.
(b) Absorption:
The pharmacokinetics of amoxycillin and clavulanic acid are closely allied and neither are adversely affected by the presence of food in the stomach. After an oral dose of the 2 parts amoxycillin and 1 part clavulanic acid CLAMENTIN 375 tablet, taken at the start of a meal, a mean peak serum level of 5,7 micrograms amoxycillin and 3,8 micrograms clavulanic acid per millilitre was achieved within one hour in healthy volunteers. Doubling the dose virtually doubles the peak serum level.
(c) Excretion:
64,9% of amoxycillin and 37,5% of clavulanic acid are excreted unchanged in the urine in the first 6 hours after an oral dose of 2 to 1 CLAMENTIN 375 tablet. Co-administration of probenecid has little effect on the excretion of the clavulanic acid component of the formulation.

INDICATIONS:
CLAMENTIN
formulations are indicated for the treatment of infections caused by amoxycillin resistant organisms producing beta-lactamases sensitive to clavulanic acid:
Upper respiratory tract, such as sinusitis, otitis media, tonsillitis.
Lower respiratory tract, such as bronchitis (caused by amoxycillin resistant beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus para-influenzae), pneumonia.
Urinary tract infections, such as cystitis, urethritis, pyelonephritis.
Skin and soft tissues.
CLAMENTIN formulations will also be effective in the treatment of infections caused by amoxycillin sensitive organisms at the appropriate amoxycillin dosage since in this situation the clavulanic acid component does not contribute to the therapeutic effect.

CONTRA-INDICATIONS:
Allergy to penicillins and cephalosporins.
Safety in pregnancy has not been established.
CLAMENTIN is contra-indicated in patients with a previous history of CLAMENTIN -associated jaundice/hepatic dysfunction.

WARNINGS:
Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactoid) reactions have been reported in patients on penicillin therapy. Although anaphylaxis is more frequent following parenteral therapy, it has occurred in patients on oral penicillins. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity and/or a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens. There have been reports of individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity, who have experienced severe reactions when treated with cephalosporins. Before initiating therapy with any penicillin, careful inquiry should be made concerning previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins or other allergens. If an allergic reaction occurs, CLAMENTIN should be discontinued and the appropriate therapy instituted: adrenaline, corticosteroids and antihistamines.
Transient hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice have been reported. CLAMENTIN should be used with caution in patients with evidence of hepatic dysfunction.

DOSAGE AND DIRECTIONS FOR USE:
Tablets should be taken immediately before a meal.
Dosages:
General Information:
For infections caused by amoxycillin sensitive organisms the dosage is that approved for amoxycillin as the clavulanic acid component does not contribute to the therapeutic effect.
Adult:
The adult dose for CLAMENTIN is one or two CLAMENTIN 375 tablet(s) every eight hours at the start of a meal.
Impaired renal function:
Both amoxycillin and clavulanic acid are excreted by the kidneys and the serum half-life of each increases in patients with renal failure. Therefore, the dose may need to be reduced or the interval extended. The following schedule is proposed:
Mild impairment (creatinine clearance greater than 30 mL/minute) : no change in dosage.
Moderate impairment (creatinine clearance 10 to 30 mL/minute) : 1 tablet every twelve hours.
Severe impairment (creatinine clearance less than 10 mL/minute) : half a tablet every twelve hours.
Haemodialysis decreases serum concentrations of both amoxycillin and clavulanic acid and an additional dose should be administered at the end of dialysis.
DOSAGE GUIDE:
                AMOXYCILLIN-SENSITIVE ORGANISMS
PRODUCT        UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT
INFECTIONS
LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS SKIN & SOFT TISSUE INFECTIONS
ADULTS:
CLAMENTIN         375
1-2 TABLETS
8 hourly1-2 TABLETS
8 hourly1-2 TABLETS
8 hourly1-2 TABLETS
8 hourly
                AMOXYCILLIN RESISTANT ORGANISMS
PRODUCT        UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT
INFECTIONS
(otitis media)
H. influenzae
H. para influenzae
LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS
(bronchitis)
H. influenzae
H. para influenzae
URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS
E. coli
Klebsiella pneumoniae
SKIN & SOFT TISSUE INFECTIONS
Staphylococcus aureusADULTS:
CLAMENTIN
        375
2 tablets
8 hourly2 tablets
8 hourly1-2 tablets
8 hourly1-2 tablets
8 hourly
SIDE-EFFECTS AND SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS:
The most frequently reported adverse effects are diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, skin rashes, urticaria and erythema multiforme, vaginitis, abnormal taste, headache, dizziness, tiredness and hot flushes.
The incidence and severity of adverse effects, particularly nausea and diarrhoea, increased with the higher recommended dose and can be minimised by administering the agent at the start of a meal. In addition, as these symptoms are especially related to the potassium clavulanate component, where these gastro-intestinal symptoms occur and a higher concentration of amoxycillin is required, consideration should be given to administering the additional amoxycillin separately.
Hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice have been reported. The events may be severe, and occur predominantly in adult or elderly patients. Signs and symptoms usually occur during or shortly after treatment, but in some cases may not become apparent until several weeks after treatment has ceased. The hepatic events are usually reversible. However, in extremely rare circumstances, death has been reported. These have almost always been cases associated with serious underlying disease or concomitant medication.
A moderate rise in Aspartate transaminase and/or Alanine transaminase has been noted in patients treated with CLAMENTIN.
The following adverse reactions have been reported for ampicillin class antibiotics and may occur with CLAMENTIN.
Gastro-Intestinal - gastritis, stomatitis, glossitis, black 'hairy tongue, enterocolitis and pseudomembranous colitis. If gastrointestinal reactions are evident, they may be reduced by taking CLAMENTIN at the start of a meal.
Hypersensitivity - skin rashes, urticaria, erythema multiforme, rare cases of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and less frequently exfoliative dermatitis and toxic epidermal necrolysis have been reported. Whenever such reactions occur, CLAMENTIN should be discontinued. Serious and occasional fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions and angioneurotic oedema can occur with oral penicillin (see warnings).
Haematopoietic and lymphatic - Anaemia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopenic purpura, eosinophilia, leucopenia and agranulocytosis have been reported during therapy with penicillins. These reactions are usually reversible on discontinuation of therapy and are believed to be hypersensitivity phenomena. A slight thrombocytosis was noted in less than 1% of the patients treated with CLAMENTIN. Prolongation of bleeding time and prothrombin time have also been reported less frequently.
Precautions:
Periodic assessment of organ system functions, including renal, hepatic and haematopoietic function, is advisable during prolonged therapy. Since CLAMENTIN contains amoxycillin, an aminopenicillin, it is not the treatment of choice in patients presenting with sore throat or pharyngitis because of the possibility that the underlying cause is infectious mononucleosis, in the presence of which there is a high incidence of rash if amoxycillin is used. CLAMENTIN should be given with caution to patients with lymphatic leukaemia since they are especially susceptible to amoxycillin induced skin rashes.
The possibility of superinfections with mycotic or bacterial pathogens should be kept in mind during therapy. If superinfections occur (usually involving Aerobacter, Pseudomonas or Candida), the agent should be discontinued and/or appropriate therapy instituted.
Impaired hepatic function - Changes in liver function tests have been observed in some patients receiving CLAMENTIN. It should be used with care in patients with evidence of severe hepatic dysfunction.
Impaired renal function - in patients with moderate or severe renal impairment CLAMENTIN dosage should be adjusted. (See Dosage and Administration.)
Use in lactation - amoxycillin is excreted in the milk; there is no data on the excretion of clavulanic acid in human milk. Therefore, caution should be exercised when CLAMENTIN is administered to a nursing woman.

Interactions:
Probenecid decreases the renal tubular secretion of amoxycillin, but does not affect clavulanic acid excretion. Concurrent use with CLAMENTIN may result in increased and prolonged blood levels of amoxycillin but not of clavulanic acid.
The concurrent administration of allopurinol and ampicillin substantially increases the incidence of rashes in patients receiving both agents as compared to patients receiving ampicillin alone. It is not known whether this potentiation of ampicillin rashes is due to allopurinol or the hyperuricaemia present in these patients. There is no data on CLAMENTIN and allopurinol administered concurrently.
No information is available about the concurrent use of CLAMENTIN and alcohol. However, the ingestion of alcohol whilst being treated with some other beta-lactam antibiotics has precipitated a disulfiram (Antabuse) like reaction in some patients. Therefore, the ingestion of alcohol should be avoided during and for several days after treatment with CLAMENTIN.
Following administration of ampicillin to pregnant woman a transient decrease in plasma concentration of total conjugate oestriol, oestriol-glucuronide, conjugated oestrone and oestradiol has been noted. This effect may also occur with amoxycillin and therefore CLAMENTIN.
CLAMENTIN may reduce the efficacy of oral contraceptives and patients should be warned accordingly. The use of this antibiotic may lead to the selection of resistant strains of organisms and sensitivity testing should, therefore, be carried out whenever possible, to demonstrate the appropriateness of therapy.

KNOWN SYMPTOMS OF OVERDOSAGE AND PARTICULARS OF ITS TREATMENT:
Nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea may occur with overdosing. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive. Amoxycillin may be removed from circulation by haemodialysis. The molecular weight, degree of protein binding and pharmacokinetic profile of clavulanic acid together with information from a single patient with renal insufficiency all suggest that this compound may also be removed by haemodialysis.

IDENTIFICATION:
CLAMENTIN 375
: White/off-white, round, film coated tablets.

PRESENTATION:
CLAMENTIN 375
: Amber glass bottle containing 15 or 100 CLAMENTIN 375 tablets.

STORAGE INSTRUCTIONS:
KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN.
CLAMENTIN preparations should be stored in a cool, dry place below 25°C.
CLAMENTIN 375 TABLETS: Bottles should be kept tightly closed and the tablets should be dispensed in their original containers or in moisture-proof containers.
DO NOT REMOVE DESICCANT

REGISTRATION NUMBER:
CLAMENTIN
375(tablets): 29/20.1.2/0542

NAME AND BUSINESS ADDRESS OF THE APPLICANT:
Xixia Pharmaceuticals (Pty) Ltd.
39 Hawkins Avenue, Epping Industria
Cape Town, 7460
P.O. Box 1998, Halfway House, 1685

DATE OF PUBLICATION OF THIS PACKAGE INSERT:
25.10.1995

        P2419

Updated on this site: February 2001
Current: October 2004
Source: Community Pharmacy

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