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Logo CLAMENTIN S (Powder for Suspension)
CLAMENTIN SF (Powder for Suspension Forte)

SCHEDULING STATUS:
S4

PROPRIETARY NAME
(and dosage form):

CLAMENTIN S (Powder for Suspension)
CLAMENTIN SF (Powder for Suspension Forte)

COMPOSITION:
CLAMENTIN
S:        Powder for suspension, when reconstituted according to instructions each 5 mL contains amoxycillin trihydrate equivalent to 125 mg
amoxycillin and potassium clavulanate equivalent to 31,25 mg clavulanic acid.
CLAMENTIN SF:        Powder for suspension forte, when reconstituted according to instructions each 5 mL contains amoxycillin trihydrate equivalent to 250 mg amoxycillin and potassium clavulanate equivalent to 62,5 mg clavulanic acid.

PHARMACOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION:
A 20.1.2 Penicillins

PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTION:
(a)        Bacteriology
  (i) Spectrum
CLAMENTIN
is the group name for formulations containing 2, 4 and 5 parts of a broad spectrum penicillin, amoxycillin and 1 part of potassium clavulanate. Potassium clavulanate has been shown in vitro to be an irreversible inhibitor of beta-lactamases produced by: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris. Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Bacteroides fragilis. Potassium clavulanate does not inactivate the chromosomally mediated (Sykes Type 1 Cephalosporinase) beta-lactamases produced byAcinetobacter species, Citrobacter species, Enterobacter, Indole positive Proteus, Providencia species and Serratia marcescens. In vitro the formulation showed synergism against amoxycillin-resistant organisms, with no evidence of antagonism and the activity was not reduced in the presence of serum. (In vitro activity does not necessarily imply in vivo efficacy).
  (ii) Bactericidal action
The amoxycillin component of the formulations exert a bactericidal action against many strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. The clavulanic acid component has very little bactericidal action. It does however, by inactivation of susceptible beta-lactamases, protect amoxycillin from degradation by a large number of beta-lactamase enzymes produced by penicillin-resistant strains of organisms.
(b) Absorption
The pharmacokinetics of amoxycillin and clavulanic acid are closely allied and neither are adversely affected by the presence of food in the stomach. Doubling the dose virtually doubles the peak serum level.
(c) Excretion
Co-administration of probenecid has little effect on the excretion of the clavulanic acid component of the formulation.
(d) Stability
The 4 parts amoxycillin and 1 part clavulanic acid CLAMENTIN S and SF powder for suspension and suspension forte are stable at room temperature (25°C) for two years. When reconstituted the suspensions are stable for 7 days if kept in a refrigerator (5°C) and should be used within 7 days.

INDICATIONS:
CLAMENTIN
formulations are indicated for the treatment of infections caused by amoxycillin-resistant organisms producing beta-lactamases sensitive to clavulanic acid:
Upper respiratory tract, such as sinusitis, otitis media, tonsillitis.
Lower respiratory tract, such as bronchitis (caused by amoxycillin-resistant beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus para-influenzae), pneumonia.
Urinary tract infections, such as cystitis, urethritis, pyelonephritis.
Skin and soft tissues.
CLAMENTIN formulations will also be effective in the treatment of infections caused by amoxycillin sensitive organisms at the appropriate amoxycillin dosage since in this situation the clavulanic acid component does not contribute to the therapeutic effect.

CONTRA-INDICATIONS:
Allergy to penicillins and cephalosporins. Safety in pregnancy has not been established. Safety in children under 6 months of age has not been established. CLAMENTIN is contra-indicated in patients with a previous history of CLAMENTIN-associated jaundice/hepatic dysfunction.

WARNINGS:
Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactoid) reactions have been reported in patients on penicillin therapy. Although anaphylaxis is more frequent following parenteral therapy, is has occurred in patients on oral penicillins. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity and/or a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens. There have been reports of individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity, who have experienced severe reactions when treated with cephalosporins. Before initiating therapy with any penicillin, careful inquiry should be made concerning previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins or other allergens. If an allergic reaction occurs. CLAMENTIN should be discontinued and the appropriate therapy instituted: adrenaline, corticosteroids and antihistamines. Transient hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice have been reported. CLAMENTIN should be used with caution in patients with evidence of hepatic dysfunction.

DOSAGE AND DIRECTIONS FOR USE:
Suspensions should be taken immediately before a meal.
Dosages:
General Information: For infections caused by amoxycillin-sensitive organisms the dosage is that approved for amoxycillin as the clavulanic acid component does not contribute to the therapeutic effect.
Children:
The dose of CLAMENTIN in children is 25-50 mg/kg/day of the 4 parts amoxycillin, 1 part clavulanic acid preparations (which corresponds to a daily dosage of the equivalent of 20-40 mg/kg of amoxycillin and 5-10 mg/kg of clavulanic acid) to be taken in divided doses every eight hours, at the start of a meal.
Dosage Guide:
        AMOXYCILLIN-SENSITIVE ORGANISMS
PRODUCT UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS SKIN & SOFT TISSUE INFECTIONS
CHILDREN:                                
CLAMENTIN S
(9-18kg)
5-10 mL 1)
8 hourly
5-10 mL 1)
8 hourly
5-10 mL 1)
8 hourly
5-10 mL 1)
8 hourly
CLAMENTIN SF (18-37kg) 5-10 mL 1)
8 hourly
5-10 mL 1)
8 hourly
5-10 mL 1)
8 hourly
5-10 mL 1)
8 hourly

        AMOXYCILLIN-RESISTANT ORGANISMS
PRODUCT UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS
(otitis media)
H.influenzae
H.parainfluenzae
LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS
(bronchitis)
H.influenzae
H.parainfluenzae
URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS
E.coli
Klebsiella
pneumoniae
SKIN & SOFT TISSUE INFECTIONS
Staphylococcus
aureus
CHILDREN:                                
CLAMENTIN S
(9-18kg)
5-10 mL 2)
8 hourly
5-10 mL 1)
8 hourly
5-10 mL 1)
8 hourly
5-10 mL 1)
8 hourly
CLAMENTIN SF (18-37kg) 5-10 mL 2)
8 hourly
5-10 mL 1)
8 hourly
5-10 mL 1)
8 hourly
5-10 mL 1)
8 hourly
1) To correspond to a dosage of 25-50 mg/kg/day.
2) To correspond to a dosage of 50 mg/kg/day.

SIDE-EFFECTS AND SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS:
The most frequently reported adverse effects are diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, skin rashes, urticaria and erythema multiforme, vaginitis, abnormal taste, headache, dizziness, tiredness and hot flushes. The incidence and severity of adverse effects, particularly nausea and diarrhoea, increased with the higher recommended dose and can be minimised by administering the agent at the start of a meal. In addition, as these symptoms are especially related to the potassium clavulanate component, where these gastro-intestinal symptoms occur and a higher concentration of amoxycillin is required, consideration should be given to administering the additional amoxycillin separately.
Hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice have been reported. The events may be severe, and occur predominantly in adult or elderly patients. Signs and symptoms usually occur during or shortly after treatment. but in some cases may not become apparent until several weeks after treatment has ceased. The hepatic events are usually reversible. However in extremely rare circumstances, death has been reported. There have almost always been cases associated with serious underlying disease or concomitant medication.
A moderate rise in Aspartate transaminase and/or Alanine transaminase has been noted in patients treated with CLAMENTIN. The following adverse reactions have been reported for ampicillin class antibiotics and may occur with CLAMENTIN.
Gastro-intestinal - gastritis, stomatitis, glossitis, black hairy tongue, enterocolitis and pseudomembranous colitis. If gastro-intestinal reactions are evident, they may be reduced by taking CLAMENTIN at the start of a meal.
Hypersensitivity - skin rashes, urticaria, erythema multiforme, rare cases of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and less frequently exfoliative dermatitis and toxic epidermal necrolysis have been reported. Whenever such reactions occur, CLAMENTIN should be discontinued. Serious and occasional fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions and angioneurotic oedema can occur with oral penicillin (see warnings).
Haematopoietic and lymphatic - Anaemia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopenic purpura, eosinophilia leucopenia and agranulocytosis have been reported during therapy with penicillins. These reactions are usually reversible on discontinuation of therapy and are believed to be hypersensitivity phenomena. A slight thrombocytosis was noted in less than 1% of the patients treated with CLAMENTIN.
Prolongation of bleeding time and prothrombin time have also been reported less frequently.

Precautions:
Periodic assessment of organ system functions, including renal, hepatic and haematopoietic function, is advisable during prolonged therapy. Since CLAMENTIN contains amoxycillin, an aminopenicillin, it is not the treatment of choice in patients presenting with sore throat or pharyngitis because of the possibility that the underlying cause is infections mononucleosis, in the presence of which there is a high incidence of rash if amoxycillin is used. CLAMENTIN should be given with caution to patients with lymphatic leukaemia since they are especially susceptible to amoxycillin induced skin rashes.
The possibility of superinfections with mycotic or bacterial pathogens should be kept in mind during therapy. If superinfections occur (usually involving Aerobacter Pseudomonas or Candida), the agent should be discontinued and/or appropriate therapy instituted.
Impaired hepatic function - Changes in liver function tests have been observed in some patients receiving CLAMENTIN. It should be used with care in patients with evidence of severe hepatic dysfunction.
Impaired renal function - In patients with moderate or severe renal impairment CLAMENTIN dosage should be adjusted. (See Dosage and Directions for Use.)
Use in lactation - Amoxycillin is excreted in the milk; there are no data on the excretion of clavulanic acid in human milk. Therefore, caution should be exercise when CLAMENTIN is administered to a nursing woman.

Interaction:
Probenecid decreases the renal tubular secretion of amoxycillin, but does not affect clavulanic acid excretion. Concurrent use with CLAMENTIN may result in increased and prolonged blood levels of amoxycillin but not of clavulanic acid.
The concurrent administration of allopurinol and ampicillin increases substantially the incidence of rashes in patients receiving both agents as compared to patients receiving ampicillin alone. It is not known whether this potentiation of ampicillin rashes is due to allopurinol or the hyperuricaemia present in these patients. There is no data on CLAMENTIN and allopurinol administered concurrently.

No information is available about the concurrent use of CLAMENTIN and alcohol. However, the ingestion of alcohol whilst being treated with some other beta-lactam antibiotics has precipitated a disulfiram (Antabuse*)-like reaction in some patients. Therefore, the ingestion of alcohol should be avoided during and for several days after treatment with CLAMENTIN.

Following administration of ampicillin to pregnant woman a transient decrease in plasma concentration of total conjugate oestriol, oestriol-glucuronide, conjugated oestrone and oestradiol has been noted. This effect may also occur with amoxycillin and therefore CLAMENTIN.
CLAMENTIN may reduce the efficacy of oral contraceptives and patients should be warned accordingly.
The use of this antibiotic may lead to the selection of resistant strains of organisms and sensitivity testing should, therefore, be carried out whenever possible, to demonstrate the appropriateness of therapy.

KNOWN SYMPTOMS OF OVERDOSAGE AND PARTICULARS OF ITS TREATMENT:
Nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea may occur with overdosing. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive.
Amoxycillin may be removed from circulation by haemodialysis. The molecular weight, degree of protein binding and pharmacokinetic profile of clavulanic acid together with information from a single patient with renal insufficiency all suggest that this compound may also be removed by haemodialysis.

IDENTIFICATION:
CLAMENTIN
S:        white powder for reconstitution to an off-white suspension.
CLAMENTIN SF:        white powder for reconstitution to an off-white suspension.

PRESENTATION:
CLAMENTIN
S:        clear bottles containing white powder for reconstitution to CLAMENTIN suspension.
CLAMENTIN SF: clear bottles containing white powder for reconstitution to CLAMENTIN suspension forte.

STORAGE INSTRUCTIONS:
KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN.
CLAMENTIN preparations should be stored in a cool, dry place below 25°C.
CLAMENTIN S & SF suspensions: once reconstituted should be kept in a refrigerator (5°C) and used within 7 days.

REGISTRATION NUMBERS:
CLAMENTIN
S (suspension):        29/20.1.2/0540
CLAMENTIN SF (suspension forte):        29/20.1.2/0541

NAME AND BUSINESS ADDRESS OF THE APPLICANT:
Xixia Pharmaceuticals (Pty) Ltd.
39 Hawkins Avenue, Epping Industria
Cape Town, 7460
P.O. Box 1996, Halfway House, 1665

DATE OF PUBLICATION OF THIS PACKAGE INSERT:
21.11.1995

P2422

Updated on this site: November 2000
Current: December 2004
Source: Community Pharmacy

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