|Children:||1 to 5 years - 2,5 to 5 mg.|
|6 to 12 years - 5 to 10 mg|
In normal doses the commonest side-effects of morphine are nausea, vomiting, constipation, drowsiness and confusion. Micturition may be difficult and there may be ureteric or biliary spasm; there is also an anti-diuretic effect. Dry mouth, sweating, facial flushing vertigo, bradycardia, palpitations, orthostatic hypotension, hypothermia, restlessness, changes of mood and miosis also occur. Raised intracranial pressure occurs in some patients.
Larger doses produce respiratory depression and hypotension, with circulatory failure and deepening coma.
Convulsions may occur especially in infants and children.
Death may occur from respiratory failure.
Due to the histamine-releasing effect, reactions such as urticaria and pruritus, occur in some individuals. Contact dermatitis, pain and irritation may occur on injection. Anaphylactic reactions, following intravenous injection of morphine have been reported as well as muscle rigidity.
The administration of morphine during labour may cause respiratory depression in the newborn infant.
The dosage should be reduced in elderly and debilitated patients. Morphine should be given with extreme caution in patients with decreased cardiac reserve. It should be given with caution or in reduced doses to patients with hypothyroidism, adrenocortical insufficiency, impaired kidney or liver function, prostatic hypertrophy, or shock. It should be used with caution in patients with obstructive bowel disorders. Opioid analgesics should be used with caution in patients with myasthenia gravis and in patients receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The depressant effects of morphine are enhanced by depressants of the central nervous system such as alcohol, anaesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, tricyclic antidepressants, and phenothiazines.